Bythe city is chartered given fuero by king Sancho VI of Pamplona on the site of Izurum, having jurisdiction over all the territory between the rivers Oria and Bidasoa. Inworks to canalize the Urumea river were carried out on the southern tip of the city. The military coup was initially defeated by resistance led by the Basque Nationalists: Various rationalist architectural landmarks, typically white or light toned, were erected and dotted the urban landscape in the 20s and 30s La Equitativa, Nautico, building Easo, etc.
Several more were imposed by the Francoist authorities in the run-up to the dictator's death in The first expansion of the old town stretched out to the river's mouth, on the old quarter called Zurriola a name later given by Council decision to the sand area and the avenue across the river.
After much debate within the city over its vocation, either tourism or manufacturing, Donostia developed into a fully-fledged seaside resort, but some industry developed in the district of Antiguo and outskirts of the city.
Other milestone works include casino san sebastian reshape and enlargement of the Zurriola beach and promenade and the inauguration of the Kursaal Palace cubes or the new university campus and technological facilities in Ibaeta, the provision of a wide bike lane network, underground car-parks and significant public transport improvements. The city steered clear of the destructive War of the Bands in Gipuzkoa, the only town in doing so in that territory.
The town also aided the monarch by sending a party to the Battle of Noain and providing help to quash the Revolt of the Comuneros in Only the street at the foot of casino san sebastian hill now called 31 August Street remained. The Constitution Square was built in and the town hall current library between and Thanks to the profit the company generated, the town underwent some urban reforms and improvements and the new Santa Maria Church was erected by subscription.
Historically, the koxkeroak up to the early 18th century were largely Gascon speaking inhabitants. After a relatively peaceful 17th century, the town was besieged and taken over by the casino san sebastian of the French Duke of Berwick up to This period of wealth and development was to last up to the end of 18th century.
However, after the city's Belle Epoque in the European war time, repression under Miguel Primo de Rivera 's dictatorship didn't favour the city. The town provided critical naval help to Emperor Charles V during the siege of Hondarribiawhich earned the town the titles "Muy Noble y Muy Leal", recorded on its coat of arms.
The last chapter of the town in the Middle Ages was brought about by a fire that devastated Donostia in Especially after the end of Franco's dictatorship, scores of bars sprang up all over the Old Part which are very popular with the youth and the tourists, although not as much with the local residents.
At the beginning of the 19th century, the local government was still ruled on the principle of nobility, while the inhabitants of foreign origin or descent had always been ubiquitous in the town, especially the traders. Yet these houses are relatively new, resulting from the demilitarization of the hill, : The large quantity of Gascons inhabiting the town favoured the development of trade with other European ports and Gascony.
However, inwar battered the town again and shelling over the city by Carlists caused acclaimed bertsolari and poet Bilintx to die in The Old Town is divided in two parishes relating to the Santa Maria and San Vicente churches, the inhabitants belonging to the former being dubbed traditionally joxemaritarrak, while those attached to the latter are referred to as koxkeroak.
In the middle of the shaky economic situation and real estate speculation, the iconic buildings Kursaal and Chofre bullring in Gros were demolished in Extrajudicial executions paseos by the rebel casino san sebastian military account for an estimate of over individuals murdered in the area during the first months.
After these events, Gascons, who had played a leading role in the political and economic life of the town since its foundation, began to be excluded from influential public positions by means of a string of regional sentences upheld by royal decision regional diets of ZestoaHondarribiaBergaraTolosa and Deba Cultural life thrived on this period, giving rise to various typical events in the city, such as the Caldereros or the Tamborradaand journalistic and literary productions both in Spanish and Basque.
Situated on a narrow promontory that jutted out into the sea between the waters of the Bay of Biscay and the broad estuary of the Urumea River, the town was hard to get at and well fortified — "it was the strongest fortification I ever saw, Gibraltar excepted", wrote William Dent.
In fact, the town only joined Gipuzkoa in after the war came to an end. Inthe first democratic municipal elections were held, won by the Basque Nationalist Partywho held office along with splinter party Eusko Alkartasuna Basque Solidarity until The relieving troops ransacked and burnt the city to the ground.
The open-air findings of the Upper Paleolithic have revealed that the settlers were hunters and Homo sapiensbesides pointing to a much colder climate at the time. Modern Age[ edit ] The advent of the Modern Age brought a period of instability and war for the city.
A general climate of protest and street demonstrations ensued, driven by Basque nationalists especially armed separatist organisation ETA and underground unions, triggering in the first state of emergency in Gipuzkoa.
Most current buildings trace back to the 19th century, erected thanks to the concerted effort and determination of the town dwellers after the destruction of the town by the allied Anglo-Portuguese troops. This area, the Old Part, oozes neoclassical, austere and systematic style in its architectural construction.
Inthe Grand Casino was turned into the City Hall.
Gogorza's blueprint was approved, while supervised and implemented by the former. Inthe defensive walls of the town were demolished their remains are visible in the underground car-park at the Boulevard and an expansion of the town began in an attempt to escape the military function it had held before.